This will use mbstring if it is available, and fall back to non UTF-8 functions if not. See example code below. This is critically important. Note that you must use the utf8mb4 character set for complete UTF-8 support, not the utf8 character set! See Further Reading for why. Today, it is common to set the character set in the HTTP response header like this:. Disclaimer for newcomers: i18n and l10n are numeronyms, a kind of abbreviation where numbers are used to shorten words - in our case, internationalization becomes i18n and localization, l10n.
This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization. The most classic way and often taken as reference for i18n and l10n is a Unix tool called gettext. It dates back to and is still a complete implementation for translating software. It is easy enough to get running, while still sporting powerful supporting tools.
It is about Gettext we will be talking here. Also, to help you not get messy over the command-line, we will be presenting a great GUI application that can be used to easily update your l10n source. There are common libraries used that support Gettext and other implementations of i18n. Some of them may seem easier to install or sport additional features or i18n file formats.
In this document, we focus on the tools provided with the PHP core, but here we list others for completion:. Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases:. If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter. You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum.
Here we will also be using Poedit to create translation files. There are three files you usually deal with while working with gettext. There are some cases, in big projects, where you might need to separate translations when the same words convey different meaning given a context.
In those cases, you split them into different domains. In Symfony projects, for example, domains are used to separate the translation for validation messages. A locale is simply a code that identifies one version of a language. It is defined following the ISO and ISO alpha-2 specs: two lower-case letters for the language, optionally followed by an underline and two upper-case letters identifying the country or regional code.
For rare languages , three letters are used. For some speakers, the country part may seem redundant. To use Gettext, we will need to adhere to a specific structure of folders. First, you will need to select an arbitrary root for your l10n files in your source repository. As we said in the introduction, different languages might sport different plural rules.
However, gettext saves us from this trouble once again. When creating a new. When calling Gettext in code, you will have to specify the number related to the sentence, and it will work out the correct form to use - even using string substitution if needed. Plural rules include the number of plurals available and a boolean test with n that would define in which rule the given number falls starting the count with 0.
For example:. When calling out Gettext to do localization on sentences with counters, you will have to provide it the related number as well. Gettext will work out what rule should be in effect and use the correct localized version. You will need to include in the. The first section works like a header, having the msgid and msgstr especially empty. It describes the file encoding, plural forms and other things that are less relevant.
The second section translates a simple string from English to Brazilian Portuguese, and the third does the same, but leveraging string replacement from sprintf so the translation may contain the user name and visit date. The last section is a sample of pluralization forms, displaying the singular and plural version as msgid in English and their corresponding translations as msgstr 0 and 1 following the number given by the plural rule.
The plural forms always have two msgid singular and plural , so it is advised not to use a complex language as the source of translation.
As you might have noticed, we are using as source ID the actual sentence in English. That msgid is the same used throughout all your. The Gettext manual favors the first approach as, in general, it is easier for translators and users in case of trouble. That is how we will be working here as well. However, the Symfony documentation favors keyword-based translation, to allow for independent changes of all translations without affecting templates as well.
In a typical application, you would use some Gettext functions while writing static text in your pages. Those sentences would then appear in. One of the great advantages Gettext has over custom framework i18n packages is its extensive and powerful file format. This guide is based on PoEdit 1. Now, save the file - using that directory structure we mentioned as well.
After setting those points it will run a scan through your source files to find all the localization calls. After every scan PoEdit will display a summary of what was found and what was removed from the source files. Save it and a. As you may have noticed before, there are two main types of localized strings: simple ones and those with plural forms. The first ones have simply two boxes: source and localized string.
Tip: you may right-click a translation line and it will hint you with the source files and lines where that string is being used. On the other hand, plural form strings include two boxes to show the two source strings, and tabs so you can configure the different final forms. Whenever you change your sources and need to update the translations, just hit Refresh and Poedit will rescan the code, removing non-existent entries, merging the ones that changed and adding new ones.
It may also try to guess some translations, based on other ones you did. It is also useful if you have a translation team and someone tries to write something they are not sure about: just mark Fuzzy, and someone else will review later. From that menu, you can also open parts of the UI that allow you to leave contextual information for translators if needed. It happens the first time it is read, and then, to update it, you might need to restart the server.
Many custom i18n libraries from frameworks use something similar to t as well, to make translated code shorter. However, that is the only function that sports a shortcut. It is just a field in the. You need to include there the specifications of those new functions, following a specific format :. After including those new rules in the. Dependency injection is a software design pattern that allows the removal of hard-coded dependencies and makes it possible to change them, whether at run-time or compile-time.
This quote makes the concept sound much more complicated than it actually is. Dependency Injection is providing a component with its dependencies either through constructor injection, method calls or the setting of properties. It is that simple. Here we have a Database class that requires an adapter to speak to the database.
We instantiate the adapter in the constructor and create a hard dependency. This makes testing difficult and means the Database class is very tightly coupled to the adapter. Now we are giving the Database class its dependency rather than creating it itself. These are the complex problems that Dependency Injection solves.
In terms of Dependency Injection, this means loosening our dependencies by controlling and instantiating them elsewhere in the system. For years, PHP frameworks have been achieving Inversion of Control, however, the question became, which part of control are we inverting, and where to? For example, MVC frameworks would generally provide a super object or base controller that other controllers must extend to gain access to its dependencies. This is Inversion of Control, however, instead of loosening dependencies, this method simply moved them.
Dependency Injection allows us to more elegantly solve this problem by only injecting the dependencies we need, when we need them, without the need for any hard coded dependencies at all. The Single Responsibility Principle is about actors and high-level architecture. The largest benefit of this approach is that it enables improved code reusability. By designing our class to do just one thing, we can use or re-use it in any other program without changing it.
Practically speaking, this means that we should write classes that implement and adhere to interfaces , then type-hint against those interfaces instead of specific classes. The largest benefit of this approach is that we can very easily extend our code with support for something new without having to modify existing code, meaning that we can reduce QA time, and the risk for negative impact to the application is substantially reduced.
We can deploy new code, faster, and with more confidence. The Liskov Substitution Principle is about subtyping and inheritance. For example, if we have a FileInterface interface which defines an embed method, and we have Audio and Video classes which both implement the FileInterface interface, then we can expect that the usage of the embed method will always do the thing that we intend.
If we later create a PDF class or a Gist class which implement the FileInterface interface, we will already know and understand what the embed method will do. The largest benefit of this approach is that we have the ability to build flexible and easily-configurable programs, because when we change one object of a type e. For example, a Car or Bus class would be interested in a steeringWheel method, but a Motorcycle or Tricycle class would not. Conversely, a Motorcycle or Tricycle class would be interested in a handlebars method, but a Car or Bus class would not.
There is no need to have all of these types of vehicles implement support for both steeringWheel as well as handlebars , so we should break-apart the source interface. The Dependency Inversion Principle is about removing hard-links between discrete classes so that new functionality can be leveraged by passing a different class.
Do not depend on concretions. We can easily refactor the above example to follow this principle. There are several benefits to the Database class now depending on an interface rather than a concretion. Consider that we are working in a team and the adapter is being worked on by a colleague. In our first example, we would have to wait for said colleague to finish the adapter before we could properly mock it for our unit tests.
An even bigger benefit to this method is that our code is now much more scalable. If a year down the line we decide that we want to migrate to a different type of database, we can write an adapter that implements the original interface and injects that instead, no more refactoring would be required as we can ensure that the adapter follows the contract set by the interface.
The first thing you should understand about Dependency Injection Containers is that they are not the same thing as Dependency Injection. A container is a convenience utility that helps us implement Dependency Injection, however, they can be and often are misused to implement an anti-pattern, Service Location. Injecting a DI container as a Service Locator in to your classes arguably creates a harder dependency on the container than the dependency you are replacing. It also makes your code much less transparent and ultimately harder to test.
Most modern frameworks have their own Dependency Injection Container that allows you to wire your dependencies together through configuration. What this means in practice is that you can write application code that is as clean and de- coupled as the framework it is built on. Many times your PHP code will use a database to persist information. You have a few options to connect and interact with your database. The recommended option until PHP 5. Native drivers are great if you are only using one database in your application, but if, for example, you are using MySQL and a little bit of MSSQL, or you need to connect to an Oracle database, then you will not be able to use the same drivers.
The mysql extension for PHP is incredibly old and has been superseded by two other extensions:. Not only did development stop long ago on mysql , but it was deprecated as of PHP 5. To save digging into your php. Even if you are not using PHP 7. Not only is that a gross oversimplification, it misses out on the advantages that mysqli provides, such as parameter binding, which is also offered in PDO.
More importantly, PDO allows you to safely inject foreign input e. This is possible using PDO statements and bound parameters. This ID should be used to fetch a user record from a database. This is the wrong way to do this:. This is terrible code. You are inserting a raw query parameter into a SQL query.
This will get you hacked in a heartbeat, using a practice called SQL Injection. This is correct code. It uses a bound parameter on a PDO statement. This escapes the foreign input ID before it is introduced to the database preventing potential SQL injection attacks. You should also be aware that database connections use up resources and it was not unheard-of to have resources exhausted if connections were not implicitly closed, however this was more common in other languages.
Using PDO you can implicitly close the connection by destroying the object by ensuring all remaining references to it are deleted, i. When developers first start to learn PHP, they often end up mixing their database interaction up with their presentation logic, using code that might look like this:. While there are many other solutions to doing this - depending on if you prefer OOP or functional programming - there must be some element of separation. That is a good start. Create a simple. This is essentially the same as what most modern frameworks are doing, albeit a little more manual.
You might not need to do all of that every time, but mixing together too much presentation logic and database interaction can be a real problem if you ever want to unit-test your application. PHPBridge has a great resource called Creating a Data Class which covers a very similar topic, and is great for developers just getting used to the concept of interacting with databases. Many frameworks provide their own abstraction layer which may or may not sit on top of PDO.
These will often emulate features for one database system that is missing from another by wrapping your queries in PHP methods, giving you actual database abstraction instead of just the connection abstraction that PDO provides. This will of course add a little overhead, but if you are building a portable application that needs to work with MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite then a little overhead will be worth it the sake of code cleanliness.
Some abstraction layers have been built using the PSR-0 or PSR-4 namespace standards so can be installed in any application you like:. Templates provide a convenient way of separating your controller and domain logic from your presentation logic. The main benefit to using templates is the clear separation they create between the presentation logic and the rest of your application. Templates have the sole responsibility of displaying formatted content. They are not responsible for data lookup, persistence or other more complex tasks. This leads to cleaner, more readable code which is especially helpful in a team environment where developers work on the server-side code controllers, models and designers work on the client-side code markup.
Templates also improve the organization of presentation code. This approach encourages code reuse where larger blocks of code are broken into smaller, reusable pieces, often called partials. For example, your site header and footer can each be defined as templates, which are then included before and after each page template. Finally, depending on the library you use, templates can offer more security by automatically escaping user-generated content. Some libraries even offer sand-boxing, where template designers are only given access to white-listed variables and functions.
They are a natural choice since PHP is actually a template language itself. This is beneficial to PHP developers as there is no new syntax to learn, they know the functions available to them, and their code editors already have PHP syntax highlighting and auto-completion built-in. Further, plain PHP templates tend to be very fast as no compiling stage is required. Outside of frameworks, libraries like Plates or Aura. View make working with plain PHP templates easier by offering modern template functionality such as inheritance, layouts and extensions.
From automatic escaping, to inheritance and simplified control structures, compiled templates are designed to be easier to write, cleaner to read and safer to use. Compiled templates can even be shared across different languages, Mustache being a good example of this. Since these templates must be compiled there is a slight performance hit, however this is very minimal when proper caching is used.
While it does have exceptions and more of the core is starting to use them when working with objects, most of PHP itself will try to keep processing regardless of what happens, unless a fatal error occurs. This is only a notice error, and PHP will happily carry on. The only real difference is that Python will freak out over any small thing, so that developers can be super sure any potential issue or edge-case is caught, whereas PHP will keep on processing unless something extreme happens, at which point it will throw an error and report it.
PHP has several levels of error severity. The three most common types of messages are errors, notices and warnings. Notices are advisory messages caused by code that may or may not cause problems during the execution of the script, execution is not halted. Warnings are non-fatal errors, execution of the script will not be halted. These messages are used to suggest changes to your code to help ensure best interoperability and forward compatibility with upcoming versions of PHP.
You can also control whether or not errors are displayed to the screen good for development or hidden, and logged good for production. For more information on this check out the Error Reporting section. This might seem like a good idea, but there are a few undesirable tradeoffs. PHP handles expressions using an in a less performant way than expressions without an.
Form-Based Authentication. Protecting Data on the Web. Errors, Debugging, and Deployment. Common Programming Errors. Custom Error Handlers. Creating a Report. Producing PDF. Working with Class Hierarchies. Class Type Hints.
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Abstract Classes and Interfaces. Freight Calculator Example. Advanced SQL. Exploring with SHOW. Advanced Querying. Manipulating Data and Databases. Automating Querying. Table Types. Backup and Recovery. Managing Users and Privileges. Tuning MySQL. Functional and System Requirements. Application Overview. Common Components. Managing Customers. Code Overview. Customer Validation. The Customer Form. The Shopping Cart. The Winestore Home Page. The Shopping Cart Implementation.
Ordering and Shipping at the Online Winestore.
Web Database Application with PHP and MySQL - PDF Free Download
Credit Card and Shipping Instructions. Finalizing Orders. Searching and Authentication in the Online Winestore. Searching and Browsing. Appendix A. Linux Installation Guide. Section A. Finding Out What's Installed. Installation Overview. Installing MySQL. Installing Apache. Installing PHP.
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What's Needed for This Book. Appendix B. Any ideas? Hi Chris — sorted. In this one I got stucked pretty soon. I had previously a host in Godaddy. So I proceed to create the database. After that the service. Please contact the server administrator to inform of the time the error occurred and of anything you might have done that may have caused the error. More information about this error may be available in the server error log.
Godaddy is not showing you the actual error message and instead is telling you to check the server error log! Maverick, look in your ViewController. Hi Chris, I am following this tutorial in Xcode 6 and have now gotten to the point where you say that running the app should display the two addresses. When I open the app in the simulator, I get only a empty table. This part never gets performed and thus it appears the table view does not get refreshed with the downloaded data. Try downloading the sample code in the last chapter of this series!
Hello Chris, Thank you so much for this great tutorial!!!! I have one question so I am making an app where instead of a map view it just shows a string of text in a UITextField such as like the name of the address or something but I cannot figure out how to do this. Any Help would be great thank you so much! Hi Chris, I try to use your php code to extract data from mysql and use it in xcode using swift. I keep getting error when trying to run in xcode and somehow I think the problem come from the NSJSONSerialization because if I comment it out, there is no no error and I could print out the content from the url.
The funny thing is if i try to use some others json format site eg. Longtime iOS front-end developer, learning back-end, came here to learn how to set up the PHP side of things. I set up your PHP script with the proper db name and user information, but when I navigate to the file on my web server I get the following message:.
Awesome tutorial, very clean and understandable!!! I have tried everything and it works perfect with me. My question is: how can i make login screen before the table view with different users, so that 2 or 3 different people can use the database? Best regards from Bulgaria. I still use Location. Still, I have a problem with the tableview. I have also problems with the tableview object in the storyboard, I have to shrink it about 15 pixels from the right side, otherwise the row lines continue over the right edge of the screen.
I had similar problems with my previous exercise, which was also about tableview. Is there any well-known solutions for issue like this? Hey Ofir, thanks for following along! Hey Chris, thank you for the tutorial. Without a UITableView. I am having this same issue and I cannot figure it out. The location class is declared at the top of homemodel. Hi Chris — I finished this tutorial and I have a small problem. When I select the address is moves to the map view but never zooms in to the location and no pin is placed. I am getting NO errors and it seems the information is stepping through the application.
I can trace the address all the way to the end but it never draws that on the app. Hi Chris, Thanks for the wonderful tutorial. I need you guidance on displaying only the unique items in the database. Once that unique item is clicked, we details of the items. I have a database that has a list of various colors and associated flowers. I only want to display Yellow, Red etc just once.
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Once I click Red then all the flowers under Red should be shown in another table. Chris — I really like the way you laid this out very easy for use to understand but I am confused by something I hope you can help. At the end of section 4. Yes, I have the same issue. But regarding the address and location info. I would appreciate help on this as well. Thank you for your quick reply. Yes, I have that as listed. It seams as though we are putting an item in the cell but not the array.
Not sure how to fix that. Billings, MT Main St. Cherry Creek, KA.
Chris Forgive me if I am totally off base but I do know a little about programming. I am referring to the first line under the time clock. I have copy and pasted all your work to double check my typing and it still does it. I think I have it now. I added a label and lowered the TableView to just under the label and now we match. Hi Chris, thank you very much for this tutorial. Therefore, i have a question.
I want to make an app in french and the accents are not supported by the PHP file i think? How do i turn the strings in utf8 in the PHP file? Hi Chris, in step 3. I also noticed that when I create a table, you said that I should be able to see the SQL do the command, but I never did! Any help would be appreciated.
Hello Chris, love the tutorial. I do have one question for you. Should this work for very large queries or is it designed for very simple ones? I have it working for small outputs but not for large ones. I print out jsonArray and jsonElement and everything seems normal I validate online. Does this have anything to do with the length of my json? Is there a different approach if I want to make thousands of cells? Hi Chris, great tutorial! I have one question about the app though.
When I am running the app, Xcode says that the build is successful, however when the app actually opens on the simulator, the app crashes and Xcode gives me a sigbart warning for the line which is in main. Everything works great now! Chris very good tutorial. One question how would I get the viewcontroller to refresh. I can not seem to figure it out. In the case where we want to restrict who sees the content of our database, how complex would it be to implement a user login to such and app?
Conceptually how would that be done? I am having a slight problem when I try to connect to a db remotely and I would be really grateful if you could help me out. I use your code for the php script but I change the host to the ip address of the db and my credentials to log in for the other parameters. However, I do not see the table displayed like in your section 3. Obviously when I run it on xcode I see a blank screen but no warnings or errors. If it helps, I noticed an anomaly. Could this be related? I figured out what my problem was. I have a problem with the connection to the file service.
The application compiles and runs but does not show any results! Really good tutorial Chris! Thank you! Learned a great deal from your work! Does it it work that way?
Web Application Development Using PHP/MySQL
Any help would be great! Question for you though. If I wanted to use this for my own data not location data and skip the map part would it work? I have my own service. Hey Josh, it may be that you have a breakpoint set accidentally. Apologies for the late reply! Great tutorial… I have a question, my result set from php is only one row and I want to display column values as rows in UITableView. I tried various options but it is displaying only one row.
Great job Chris! I was wondering how the code for upload a text and image into a mysql database will look like. Please help in explaining that. Hi Chris! I am having troubles with sentences with accented characters. Hey Giovanni, we probably need to escape the accented characters. Would you mind sending me a sample of your json file with accented characters that the app is trying to parse?
Hi Chriss! Sorry for my question…. Then, put those phrases in an Array and show in a label random senteces. Unfortunately I was not able to understand how to use your tutorial for a simple purpose like mine no tabs and maps , just retrive phrases and put in an array. How can I do? Is it possible that I could put the long. Hey Luke, definitely!
In this tutorial, you saw how to pass the location object to the next view controller. You just need to do the same with two strings Lat and Long. Chris, is there any chance you could show how to get data from an Objective-C client such as an iOS device to a server? It does not have to be user entered; I would be fine with the Objective-C sending it upon starting, but just not sure how to do this, especially on the PHP side of it.
Hey David, no worries! It would basically be the same thing..
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I mean the URL i used in the demo. Thanks for the response. When I use your service. That was my first thought so I went to Safari in the simulator and tried to access the site and It loaded without a problem. Any other ideas? Thanks for the help so far! Hmm for your nsurlconnection, are you using the internal IP? Mine looks like I will try it ASAP and get back to you. Great tutorial, even though i stopped pretty fast because of some problems with uploading the PHP file to the server.
And some more errors on line 36 and I have tried to make delete my database and create a new one, just to make sure everything is okay there. So if you could just give me a clue of what this errors mean, maybe I can figure it out. There are three parts you should check.. Hello Chris, thanks for the tutorials. You are in the spot helping people with O C and I wish all the best in the world for you. I just want that instead of the address 1 infinite loop cupertino CA appears an image also from the dB. Imgselec ]]];.
I apologize for not getting to your question earlier! When I launch the final product, it will only push the map viewcontroller if I select the second option. Only after I have already selected the second option will triggering the first cell load the mapview. Any suggestions about why this may be happening?
Figured it out!
A Complete PHP MySQL Tutorial
Simple and easy to follow tutorial. I do have one issue though, when I click the location in loads the main. I found how to locate the error in another one of your awesome tutorials ;. Chris, Thanks for the reply. Where would it be? The closest I could find was:. Excellent tutorial! What would the PHP script need to look like and how do you pass the new updated record to the php script?